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RIKEN Center for Brain Science Computational Group Dynamics Collaboration Unit

Unit Leader: Wataru Toyokawa (Ph.D.)

Research Summary

Wataru Toyokawa

The collective-level behavioural phenomena in human societies, such as collective intelligence through coordination or the tragedy of commons through free-riding, are formed by states and behaviour of individuals. At the same time, individual behaviour and belief are influenced by the states and dynamics at the group level. To disentangle these interwoven problems, we use both theoretical modelling and behavioural experimentations, trying to take a step towards understanding the coevolutionary processes between human behaviour, societies, and cultures.

Main Research Fields

  • Complex Systems

Related Research Fields

  • Social psychology


  • Group decision making
  • Collective intelligence
  • Social learning
  • Cultural evolution
  • Computational modelling

Selected Publications

Papers with an asterisk(*) are based on research conducted outside of RIKEN.

  • 1. *Toyokawa W, and Gaissmaier W.
    "Conformist social learning leads to self-organised prevention against adverse bias in risky decision making."
    eLife, 11:e75308. (doi: 10.7554/eLife.75308)
  • 2. *Kameda T, Toyokawa W, and Tindale RS
    "Information aggregation and collective intelligence beyond the wisdom of crowds."
    Nature Reviews Psychology. (doi: 10.1038/s44159-022-00054-y)
  • 3. *Laland KN, Toyokawa W and Oudman T
    "Animal Learning as a Source of Developmental Bias."
    Evolution and Development. (doi: 10.1111/ede.12311)
  • 4. *Toyokawa W, Whalen A and Laland KN.
    "Social learning strategies regulate the wisdom and madness of interactive crowds."
    Nature Human Behaviour, 3: 183-193. (doi: 10.1038/s41562-018-0518-x).
  • 5. *Kim H, Toyokawa W & Kameda T.
    "How do we decide when (not) to free-ride? Risk tolerance predicts adaptation of cooperation levels in new settings."
    Evolution and Human Behavior, 40: 55-64. (doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.08.001)
  • 6. *Muthukrishna M, Henrich J, Toyakawa W, Hamamura T, Kameda T, & Heine S J.
    "Overconfidence is Universal? Elicitation of Genuine Overconfidence (Ego) Method Reveals Systematic Differences Across Domain, Task Knowledge, and Incentives in Four Populations."
    PLoS ONE, 13(8): e0202288. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202288)
  • 7. Toyokawa W.
    "Scrounging by foragers can resolve the paradox of enrichment"
    Royal Society Open Science, 4: 160830. (doi:10.1098/rsos.160830)
  • 8. Toyokawa W, Saito Y and Kameda T.
    "Individual differences in learning behaviours in humans: Asocial exploration tendency does not predict reliance on social learning."
    Evolution and Human Behavior, 38 (3): 325-333. (doi:10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.11.001)
  • 9. Toyokawa W, Kim H and Kameda T.
    "Human collective intelligence under dual exploration-exploitation dilemmas."
    PLoS ONE 9(4): e95789. (doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095789)
  • 10. Kameda T, Wisdom T, Toyokawa W and Inukai K
    "Is consensus-seeking unique to humans? A selective review of animal group decision-making and its implications for (human) social psychology."
    Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 15, 673-689. (doi: 10.1177/1368430212451863)


Related Links

Lab Members

Principal investigator

Wataru Toyokawa
Unit Leader


Position Deadline
Research Scientist or Postdoctoral Researcher Position (W23242) Open until filled

Contact Information

Universitätstr. 10, 78464 Konstanz, Germany
Email: wataru.toyokawa [at] riken.jp